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Sultan Agung, Between the Throne, Struggle and Love

Sultan Agung Adi Prabu Hanyakrakusuma was the third sultan or king of Mataram Sultanate who held the throne in 1613-1645. Under his reign, Mataram became the largest kingdom in Java and also Nusantara at that time. He also became the National Hero due to his services and struggle to Mataram. His real name is Raden Mas Jatmika or known as Raden Mas Rangsang. He was the son of Panembahan Hanyakrawati and Queen Mas Adi Dyah Banawati.

 

The Spirit of Sultan Agung During His Life for Mataram After Getting His Throne

His father was the second king of Mataram while his mother was the princess of Pangeran Benawan Raja Pajang. Another version said that Sultan Agung was the son of Prince Purbaya or the brother of Prabu Hanyakrawati. At that time, the prince switched his baby with Dyah Banawati’s baby. No one knows whether this version is right or not. Along with his story, Sultan Agung had 2 main wives. One was the princess of Cirebon who became the Queen Kulon and the second one was princess of Adipati Batang who became the Queen Wetan.

Sultan Agung got Raden Mas Syahwawrat or Prince Alit from Queen Kulon and Raden Mas Sayidin from the Queen Wetan. He got his throne when he was still 20 in 1613 after replacing his brother Adipati Martapura who became the sultan only for one day. Technically, Sultan Agung was the fourth king in the Mataram Sultanate but generally, he became the third because his brother got sick and he was lifted just to fulfill the promise of the father. After being the sultan for 2 years, Patih Ki Juru Martani was dead due to his age.

Tumenggung Singaranu replaced him. The capital city of Mataram was still in Kota Gede and the biggest competitors of Mataram at that time were Surabaya and Banten. In 1614, Sultan Agung sent an army to conquer Lumajang which was the ally of Surabaya. In 1615, Sultan Agung also conquered the capital city of Majapahit, Wirasaba. Surabaya wanted to revenge and Adipati Pajang wanted to betray Mataram but he hesitated to send the army to help Surabaya and soon, Surabaya was fallen.

Meanwhile in 1614, VOC sent an ambassador to invite Sultan Agung to be cooperated but he refused it. Though Mataram experienced crop failure due to war with Surabaya, he still refused the cooperation with VOC. Then in 1619, VOC conquered Jayakarta and changed the name to be Batavia. Sultan Agung realized the power of VOC and he wanted to use VOC to attack Surabaya and Banten. He began the cooperation with VOC but at that time, VOC refused to help Mataram in attacking Surabaya, then the cooperation was broken.

During his life, Sultan Agung was known as the king who never gave up to fight against VOC and he tried to cooperate with Portuguese kingdom to destroy VOC but soon, he broke the cooperation because he knew Portuguese was weak. Under his reign and throne, the land of Java was bowed under Mataram except for Batavia which was still under VOC. Sultan Agung succeed to make Mataram as the largest kingdom in Nusantara after suffering so many wars, chaos and also bloodshed.

Because of that, there was a film of Sultan Agung released and the film told about the story of his effort, struggle and also love for remembering the power of Sultan Agung in Nusantara.

 
 

Galuh Queen and White Tiger in Bogor Botanical Garden

Bogor Botanical Garden is the best place to learn about nature and also feel the chill weather there. However, this place is also popular for the mystery especially in the cemetery area of Queen Galuh. Not many people know including the residents around that Kebun Raya Bogor has several sacred tombs which are more than 600 years old. Those tombs are also positioned near the Red Bridge which is known as the mysterious place but who is Galuh actually?

Petruk, The Witty Bearer of Wisdom

In the book of “Mitologi dan Toleransi Orang Jawa” by Ben Anderson, Javanese people were mentioned to have the value of “adhiluhung” in interpreting their life. That value is reflected in the world of shadow puppet or “wayang” as the guidelines of life for Javanese people. One of the figures in shadow puppets is Petruk. This characteristic is so famous with his advice and also wisdom in life. He is the member of Punakawan which is so famous in the land of Java.

Ajisaka, Carrier of Javanese Civilization

Every land in the world may have its different history and also the legendary folk related to it including Indonesia. Every island in this country has its urban legend believed by all people no matter it is true or just a legend. One of the popular legends is Ajisaka. It is the Javanese legend about the arrival of civilization into the land of Java carried by a King named Ajisaka. This legend also covers the origins or Javanese letters called “Aksara Jawa” used centuries ago as the main letters…