The Cleverness of Sultan Hamengku Buwono During His Reign in Yogyakarta
Since he was child, Pangeran Mangkubumi was known as the clever person in the military. He was smart in horse riding and also weapon. Beside that, he was known as the person who was devout worship while uphold the Javanese culture. Because of that, he was lifted to become Pangeran Lurah when his uncle, Mangkubumi died in 1730. Pangeran Mangkubumi was told as the one who loved praying to God in the book of Serat Cebolek. He was described as the person who always did fasting in Monday and Thursday.
He also did the 5-time prayers and also read Al Quran. In the book, he was also known as the person who loved traveling and approaching the society while giving the help to those who were weak. Based on the history, his characteristic resulted the loyalty among the followers. In 1746 when he fought against VOC, Pangeran Mangkubumi had around 3000 soldiers and in just one year, the followers increased to become 13000 soldiers and around 2500 of them were the horse riders.
Mataram was on the tough moment in 1740 where there were so many chaotic events from Geger Pacinan which was led by Sunan Kuning and Pangeran Sambernyawa to other rebellions. Keraton had to be moved to from Kartasura to Surakarta. To turn off the attack of Pangeran Sambernyawa, Paku Buwono II did the contest and Pangeran Mangkubumi won that. Mangkubumi wanted to control the northern Java as the strategic method to reduce the influence of VOC in Mataram.
However, due to betrayal and cheating done by Patih Pringgoloyo and VOC, Pangeran Mangkubumi found the dead end. Because of that, Mangkubimi decided to move out from castle and started the open war against VOC. Pangeran Sambernyawa supported him and together, they could release some regions from VOC. In another situation, Paku Buwono got sick and Dutch used this condition to attack Mataram.
Paku Buwono III replaced his father and after knowing the agreement, Mangkubumi and Sambernyawa fought against VOC. In several months, the entire land of Mataram was under the reign of Pangeran Mangkubumi. In 1754, there was a meeting between Pangeran Mangkubumi and Hartingh to make the agreement known as Palihan Nagari. The result of agreement was written in the text of Perjanjian Giyanti. Based on the history, this was the beginning of Kasultanan Yogyakarta and Pangeran Mangkubumi was given the crown as the first king of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat and he was given the title of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I.
Keraton Yogyakarta was established sturdy until now and it is located in the strategic area. On the east, there is Kali Code and Kali Winongso is on the west. Meanwhile in the north, Mount Merapi stands there and in the south, there is Southern Ocean and the architecture of Keraton was created by Sultan thoroughly.